How Clean Is Clean

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default How Clean Is Clean

Post  FinchG on Fri Feb 03, 2012 8:23 am

There are many disinfectants and cleaning agents to choose from. Disinfectants fall into categories based on active ingredients and their ability to kill pathogens. The following are disinfectants, classified according to their chemical composition and the substances they contain. Also listed are recommended uses, advantages, disadvantages and trade names.
Alcohol


    A skin antiseptic and low-level disinfectant with a 10 minute contact time, intermediate-level contact time 30 minutes. Primarily used as a skin antiseptic. Should be used at full strength. When used on glass or Plexiglas areas of brooders as a daily wipe contributes greatly to the destruction of pathogens. 70% ethyl alcohol with a 20 minute contact time proves to be a powerful broad spectrum germicide for many pathogens.
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    • Disadvantages:
      Is inactivated by organic matter. Evaporates quickly and for this reason generally not used as an intermediate-level disinfectant because of the need for repeat applications to maintain contact time. May cause damage to some plastics.


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Sodium Hypochlorite (Chlorine bleach)


    TRADE NAMES: Clorox, Purex
    <p>Common household bleach (a 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite) is a low-level disinfectant with a 2-minute contact time and intermediate-level disinfectant at 5-minutes contact time. According to Clorox documentation, bleach should not be considered a sterilant. Chlorine compounds are popular disinfectants because of their rapid killing ability against many micro-organisms and low cost (J. Cangle (1988) Disinfection of clinic and aviary. Prof Assoc. of Avian Tech. pp25-28). Considered to be a harsh but effective chemical that indiscriminately attacks micro-organisms and organic debris. For bird cages, most of the fecal matter must be removed prior to application of the bleach solution.
    <p>As a general use disinfectant, mix 3/4 C bleach to one gallon of water. For clean surfaces, apply, let stand for 5 minutes, then rinse well. For purging water pipes one gallon per 500 gallons of water is safe for bird consumption (potable levels) according to the Center for Disease Control. A solution of 3/4 C per gallon of water may be sprayed onto surfaces such as walls, cages or floors unless it beads up (in which case it should be wiped onto these cleaned surfaces) and allowed to stand for 5 minutes. All items should be well rinsed after contact.
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    • Advantages:
      Readily available and very cost-effective. Correctly used at the 3/4 C to 1 gallon of water solution, bleach is effective as a disinfectant and kills many micro-organisms (not tuberculosis, bacterial spores and chlamydia). A potent deodorizer.

    • Disadvantages:
      A skin and eye irritant. Can discolor and cause pitting of the metal surfaces of cage wire and hand-feeding utensils. As with any disinfectant, bleach is inactivated by organic debris. Less effective in hard water. Bleach, stored under normal conditions has a shelf life of about six months. Will deteriorate with time and exposure to light and heat. Diluted bleach solutions should be discarded after 24 hours. Does not work well on spore forms of bacteria or mycobacterium. Vapors produced as bleach reacts with proteins can be quite irritating to avian respiratory systems.


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Chlorhexidines


    TRADE NAMES: Nolvasan, Chlorasan, Virosan, Hibitane, Hibistat, Phisohex
    <p>A low-level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes. Used as an inanimate surface disinfectant. Due to its low-level tissue toxicity it is recommended as a skin antiseptic, a treatment for mild cases of Candida and as a drinking water additive. It is also thought to inhibit the spread of some viruses. For drinking water, dilute at 10-20cc per gallon of water. For hand-feeding formula a drop or two per cup or 5cc per gallon of formula. Recommended as a daily sanitation level wash for brooders and baby containers, and as a routine brooder wipe for containers with chicks present. Used as a skin antiseptic for soiled babies.
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    • Advantages:
      Effective against many fungus, yeast, bacteria (Gram-negative organisms) and some viruses (most enveloped viruses) including Newcastle's. A very low toxicity to birds and humans.

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    • Disadvantages:
      Chlorhexidines have some limitations which make some routine use inadvisable. As a cleaner it has little value because of poor cleaning properties and due to a decreased effectiveness in the presence of organic matter and hard water. It is not effective against several types of bacteria including many Gram-negative bacteria and Pseudomonas. Not effective against bacterial spores or mycobacterium. Will not kill hydrophilic viruses.

    Moderately expensive, and solutions must be discarded daily to be within recommended guidelines.

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Tamed Iodines


    TRADE NAMES: Betadyne, Povidone, Wescodyne, Virac, Prepodyne
    <p>Primarily a skin antiseptic and a low-level disinfectant (when diluted) with a 10 minute contact time, intermediate-level (full strength) with a 30 minute contact time. Can be used as a hand soap replacement and when diluted as a wash for soiled chicks. Recommended as a treatment for the umbilicus of newly hatched chicks. Iodophores or tamed iodines used at full strength are effective against a broad range of bacteria and fungi and their spores.
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    • Advantages:
      Iodophores kill a wide range of disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi, many viruses, and most micro-organisms. Work equally well in warm or cold water and have a long shelf life. Tamed iodines are gentle to bird and human tissue and possess limited vapor production. Not effected by hard water. Readily available for purchase. Available in a detergent form as well as a solution.

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    • Disadvantages:
      Moderately expensive. Iodophors can stain tissues and some materials. Can cause drying and cracking of skin with long term use. May corrode metals with prolonged exposure. Can be toxic if swallowed in large quantities. New strains of Pseudomonas may prove resistant to iodophors. Inactivated by prolonged contact with organic matter. Does not effect hydrophilic viruses such as polyomavirus and PBFD.


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Phenolics


    TRADE NAMES: Lysol, LPH, Staphene, One-Stroke Environ, O-Syl, Matar
    <p>An intermediate-level disinfectant at a ten minute contact time. A disinfectant of choice for cleaning contaminated areas where birds do not have direct contact. An effective cleaner/disinfectant for cleaning walls and floors (a solution of 1/2 OZ. per gallon of water). A solution of 1/2 OZ. per qt. is recommended for well ventilated, heavily soiled areas.
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    • Advantages:
      Many products are readily available. Kills fungi, Tuberculosis, certain viruses, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas bacteria.One-Stroke Environ is used by the USDA for quarantine station clean up. Retains its effectiveness in hard water. Does not stain surfaces or leave residual odor. Low cost with a high dilution ratio.

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    • Disadvantages:
      Higher concentrations of phenols will burn skin, eyes and lungs. Good ventilation, gloves and goggles are recommended when using phenols. Does not kill nonenveloped viruses, such as parvovirus, polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus and reovirus, nor will they kill all bacteria types. Toxic to cats and may be toxic to reptiles.


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Gluteraldehydes


    TRADE NAMES: Wavicide-l and Wavicide-06
    <p>Wavicide is the disinfectant of choice. At full strength it is a sterilant with a contact time of 10 hours (5 hours when heated) and can be reused for 42 days. One part Wavicide to 4 parts water produces an intermediate-level disinfectant with a contact time of 30 minutes, a low-level disinfectant with a contact time of 5 minutes and the diluted solution can be used for 21 days. Testing has shown that many disease-causing organisms are killed after only a few minutes' exposure to Wavicide-01. Gluteraldehydes are the preferred choice for disinfection and sterilization because of their excellent range of pathogen control and speed of action. Because it is so effective, it is highly recommended for disinfecting all hand-feeding and aviary equipment. Use as a soak for proper disinfection of aviary equipment and also for medical and hand-feeding utensils and cleaning tools. A dilute gluteraldehyde solution can be safely sprayed on cages and bird room floors for disinfection after washing. Birds should be removed or proper ventilation provided when spraying. equipment should be rinsed after disinfection.
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    • Advantages:
      Totally effective against ALL pathogens. Equally effective in cold, hot and hard water. Effective in the presence of organic debris. Skin irritation is minimal even at 2%. Rated by the EPA as the lowest tissue irritation level possible, non-toxic and non-teratogenic. Wavicide has proven to be the best combination of stability, ease of application, range and speed of destruction of pathogens, safety for both humans and animals, long shelf life, economy, reusability, ease of application and safety. Highly recommended for aviary and nursery use.

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    • Disadvantages:
      May require a medical license for purchase from some suppliers. EPA testing limited on animal and bird pathogens. Most tests were performed on human micro-organisms. Inadequate ventilation may result in eye and respiratory irritation in humans and birds. Prolonged contact with concentrated form may cause skin peeling and discoloration.


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Quaternay Ammonium /Quats


    TRADE NAMES: Roccal-D
    <p>A low-level disinfectant, contact time 10 minutes. Products vary greatly. Recommended for aviary use. as a daily wipe-down of cages, perches, floors, bowls etc. Low toxicity makes bird removal unnecessary. A good choice for routine aviary disinfection. Effectivc against viruses and bacteria in a 1:200 dilution (lOcc to 1 gallon water).
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    • Advantages:
      An excellent general disinfectant. Kills both Gram negative and positive bacteria, many viruses and chlamydia. High dilution factor make this disinfectant cost effective. No odor or color in pure form. Normally sold colored green or brown with a pleasant scent added.

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    • Disadvantages:
      Not effective against bacterial spores, fungus, non-enveloped viruses, fungus or mycobacterium with poor Pseudomonas activity. Decreased effectiveness in the presence of organic debris and also in hard water. Not easily rinsed off surfaces, often leaving a soapy residue. Causes respiratory paralysis if ingested.


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Citus-Based Disinfectants



    Within the last few years several citrus-based environmentally friendly products have appeared on the market. Natural Solutions by Equinox comes to mind. This Lemon Disinfectant is listed as a proven "one step" cleaner, sanitizer, fungicide, mildewstat, virucide and deodorizer in the presence of moderate amounts of organic matter. In the article Disinfectants against Avian Polyoma virus, Dr. Branson W Richie DVM Ph.D., N. Pritchard BS, D. Pesti MS, K. Latimer DVM Ph.D., P. Lukert DVM Ph.D., stated that Disinfectants that contain a detergent may be more effective in removing organic debris and may increase the effectiveness of a disinfectant under these conditions." Because of Lemon Disinfectants' rating, this detergent/ disinfectant is a good choice for the wash-down phase of a sanitation program. Periodic sterilization is recommended as with any intermediate or low-level disinfectant. Lemon Disinfectant, an intermediate-level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes, has proven to be effective against a broad spectrum of Gram negative and Gram positive organisms including: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas Salmonella and E. coli. Not only effective but good to the environment.


FinchG
Lots Of Societies, 11 Gouldians, 4 Orange Cheek Waxbills, 2 Orange Weavers, 3 Spice Finches,1 Quaker, 1 Conure and 2 Lineolated Parakeets


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